Art historian Kenneth Clark wrote that Western Europe's first "great age of civilisation" was ready to begin around the year Upon this period rests the foundations of many of Europe's subsequent achievements.
Furthermore, inthe Council of Trent established the Roman Inquisitionwhich made humanism and any views that challenged the Catholic church an act of heresy punishable by death.
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The differences between these regions led to a bloody civil war A period of warm temperatures from around — enabled the establishment of a Norse outpost in Greenland inwhich survived for some years as the most westerly oupost of Christendom. He saw a sharp break between medieval culture and the Renaissance, which he considered the beginning of modern culture.
Who wrote this essay? The last pagan land in Europe was converted to Christianity with the conversion of the Baltic peoples in the High Middle Agesbringing them into Western civilization as well.
Humanists studied directly from the original sources.