The psychological legal and ethical questions regarding the practice of surrogate pregnancy

No matter how it is marketed, ICS is not ethically neutral, and harm has been perpetrated on children and surrogate mothers. Several sources of conflict exist in ICS between the financial interests of professionals, agents, and other intermediaries and the psychological and health needs of surrogate women and between these same financial interests and the best interests of children.

In Mexican contracts, surrogate mothers were required to agree to the condition that they could not choose to have an abortion but must submit to an abortion at the request of commissioning parents.

If a foreigner or NRI is seeking surrogacy, they should enter an agreement with written guarantee of citizenship for the child from their government, and they should also appoint a local guardian who would be legally responsible for taking care of the surrogate during and after the pregnancy till the child is delivered to the foreigner couple or reaches their country.

Ethical concerns about conflicts of interest, fundamental freedoms, autonomy, informed consent, self-determination, privacy, and protecting children are shared across countries.

Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy that is genetically unrelated to her and her husband, with the intention to carry it to term and hand over the child to the genetic parents with whom she enters into a contract for surrogacy.

surrogacy ethical issues pdf

First, he highlights that in order to make informed decisions, surrogate mothers need to understand what they are agreeing to in the first place and that the power imbalance inherent in contracts undermines the ability to negotiate with regard to present and future effects of the surrogacy arrangement.

A rights approach is important, and these rights should be upheld.

ethics of surrogacy pros and cons

Cunha, D. In countries where there are well-developed child protection systems, there is no risk threshold that allows an acceptable number of abused children and the abuse of even one child triggers intensive reviews of practice.

Ethical issues of surrogacy in india

Surrogate mother would not be allowed to undergo embryo transfer more than 3 times for the same couple. Surrogate mothers undergo multiple medical procedures to achieve a successful surrogacy including the administration of medication, multiple embryo transfers, fetal reductions, sex selection, abortions, and cesarean sections. This would create a tremendous amount of emotional distress to the surrogate mother. Keywords: Surrogacy, commercial, altruistic The ever-rising prevalence of infertility world over has lead to advancement of assisted reproductive techniques ART. These conditions create particular vulnerabilities in surrogacy arrangements compared to the wealthier consumers of these services. If the surrogate is a married woman, the consent of her spouse would be required before she may act as surrogate to prevent any legal or marital dispute. From a medical perspective, informed consent is defined as consent that ensures a full understanding of all risks and benefits prior to agreeing to a procedure.

However, many see it as distinct from labour working in a factory or teaching a class.

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Ethical dilemmas in surrogacy