The supervision of education is the function of the third class, the rulers of the city b—b. However, Aristotle does not say that we should aim at happiness, but rather that we do aim at happiness.
A study of how a city comes to be will supposedly reveal the origin of justice and injustice a. The three other virtues are then assigned to the respective parts of the soul.
This presupposition is indeed made explicit in the Euthyphro, where Plato employs for the first time the terminology that will be characteristic of his full-fledged theory of the Forms.
That economic needs are the basis of the political structure does not, of course, mean that they are the only human needs Plato recognizes.
Despite this pregnant terminology, few scholars nowadays hold that the Euthyphro already presupposes transcendent Forms in a realm of their own— models that are incompletely represented by their imitations under material conditions.
To know is not to have; and to have once is not to have forever. The future philosophers, both women and men, are selected from the group of guardians whose general cultural training they share. In the ups and downs of life and of the afterlifehumans are in constant need of beauty as an incentive to aim for their own completion.
There is no guarantee that only false convictions are discarded in a Socratic investigation, while true ones are retained. To ensure that members of the ruling and military classes retain their right attitude towards their civic duties, members of both classes must lead a communal life, without private homes, families, or property.