Why did the 1919 paris peace
Paris peace conference 1919
Senate opposition cited Article 10 of the Treaty, which dealt with collective security and the League of Nations. After the war with Russia , Poland established this new frontier far to the east of the Curzon line recommended by the conference, creating a state where only 69 percent of the population was Polish and whose neighbours all had grievances against it. The main result of the Paris Peace Conference, the Treaty of Versailles, was signed on June 28, , five years after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife. According to the American banker, Thomas Lamont , "The subject of reparations caused more trouble, contention, hard feeling and delay at the Paris Peace Conference than any other point of the Treaty. Most residents were given citizenship, but there was considerable ambiguity on who was covered. The United States did not encourage or believe that the responsibility for the war that Article placed on Germany was fair or warranted. Within six weeks all the European great powers, excepting Italy , were at war. The amount they determined was billion gold Reichmarks, or 32 billion U. In wartime speeches Wilson and Lloyd George had ruled out seeking an indemnity the full repayment of war costs. He was determined that Britain should receive as much as possible of any German reparation payments, employing all his considerable political and linguistic skills in this pursuit. The chairman, U. Makers of the Modern World, London , pp. He was also adamant, against domestic and foreign opposition, that the former Kaiser should be brought to trial. The British, however, established Faisal as king of Iraq and his brother as king of Jordan, which they carved from out of their Mandate of Palestine. Lansing, Robert: The Peace Negotiations.
Eleven out of the 17 delegates present voted in favor to its amendment to the charter, and no negative vote was taken. He had popular support, for the loss ofsoldiers and a budget deficit of 12,, Lire during the war made the Italian government and people feel entitled to all these territories and even more not mentioned in the Treaty of London, in particular the city of Fiume, which many Italians believed should be annexed to Italy because of the Italian population.
Paris peace conference goals
Three or four times as many were wounded, some of whom would never work again, and each a reminder of the personal and financial cost of the conflict. Hungary, which lost two-thirds of its pre-war territory and 58 percent of its population, suffered the heaviest deprivations of any of the defeated powers, losing a third of its Magyar people. The treaty guaranteed basic civil, political, and cultural rights, and required all citizens to be equal before the law and enjoy identical rights of citizens and workers. The British Dominions, their identities tempered by war, expected greater autonomy, whilst Irish nationalists sought independence. Wilson, disheartened, returned to Paris in March after all the diplomats had reviewed the League outline with their respective governments. The former Foreign Minister Baron Makino Nobuaki was de facto chief while Saionji's role was symbolic and limited by his ill health. He wished, for sentimental as well as pragmatic motives, to create a new major British sphere of interest in the Middle East, an important source of the oil on which the Royal Navy now depended. The United States was sympathetic to a strong, united Russia as a counterpoise to Japan, but Britain feared a threat to India. The Jewish delegation Palestine, because of support for creating a Jewish homeland within at least part of the territory, was given a separate mandate with specific objectives. Meanwhile in Indochina , Ho Chi Minh, who had unsuccessfully tried to submit the Vietnamese national case to the Paris conference, exploited the growing resentment against French colonial rule in the s.
He then drove them back with increasing speed inculminating in a massacre at Izmir on 9 September and a stand-off with a small British force at Chanak, where war was averted by a combination of luck and good sense.
After a month little progress had been made beyond a first draft of the Covenant of the League of Nations and agreement that Germany forfeit its colonies, though the expert commissions were considering their recommendations.
The settlements they reached were not perfect and contained potential seeds of further conflict but also offered the hope for a better future. Peace without Victory?
German economic dominance would be tantamount to victory. The Irish envoys' final "Demand for Recognition" in a letter to Clemenceau, the Chairman, was not answered.
based on 8 review